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Arnaud QUERTINMONT. — In French. — The ex-libris is by its function an intimate element. It gives us information about the sponsor, the owner and the artist who made it…
 
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Elsa RICKAL. — In French. — Among the many ex-libris devoted to Egypt, only some represent hieroglyphs, which serve various functions…
 
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Eugène WARMENBOL. — In French. — "Ancient Egypt" as a subject, be it in 19th century history painting or in contemporary comics (for adults), quite often has erotic connotations…
 
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Roberto DAN. — The purpose of this article is to present and discuss a series of recent archaeological discoveries made in the territory that was controlled by the state of Bia/Urartu between the second half of the 9th and the second half of the 7th century BC…
 
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Fabrice DE BACKER. — The artefacts discovered in excavations, with the textual and visual evidence, provide the support for a series of deductions on the manufacture of a scale-armour…
 
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Fabrice DE BACKER. — This paper deals with the recruitment and training of the Neo-Assyrian troops between the 8th and the 7th century B.C. for a short military campaign. The basics of the military planning for the operations and of the warfare intruction provided to the troops at their « Boot Camp » will be reviewed according to the sources available at hand…
 
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Mayoro DIA, Benjamin DIOUF. — The stories of Egyptian and Greek mythologies are very enticing and very instructive…
 
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Stefania DI CARLO. — Outside the edifice, dating back to the year 1000, one can see traces of the ancient city of Palma and its “ager”…
 
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Mattias KARLSSON. — This paper focuses on how Asia and Asiatics are portrayed in historically oriented Kushite royal inscription, thus taking into account the great impact Asia in general and Assyria specifically had on the Kushite state…
 
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Ergün LAFLI, Maurizio BUORA. — In this paper we present discussions on archaeological authenticity in Turkey, advanced both from scholarly as well as popular scientific point of views…
 
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Gérard LAMBIN. — What is a god, what is the divine for Aristotle? But above all, is it allowed to speak of an Aristotelian theology and a first divine Motor?…
 
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Marcel MEULDER. — The Hellenistic poet Euphorion of Chalkis evokes the horses from Asbotos, which allow the soothsayer Amphiaraos to withdraw the disaster of the Seven Chiefs in front of Thebes…
 
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Rostislav ORESHKO. — The present paper explores the evidence of the Hieroglyphic-Luwian inscription PORSUK from ethnolinguistic, epigraphic and historical perspectives…
 
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Marta PALLAVIDINI. — In the field of Hittitology, the interconnection between the figure of the king and the institution that he represents has not been studied adequately…
 
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Eric RAIMOND. — The Goddess Demeter has become an allegory of Nature, whom its complex nature and functions are not sought…
 
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Jordan BOUCARD. — It was in 264 BC. The history of Castrum Novum begins with the establishment of a military camp. The need to create a Roman colony at this location is encouraged by the geopolitical context of the time…
 
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Behrouz KHANMOHAMMADI and Roberto DAN. — The Mergavar Plain in the west of Orumiyeh, which is surrounded by mountains and hills, is largely an uncharted land, intact and still almost archaeologically unknown in Iran, although it contains many valuable cultural-historical works…
 
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Fabrice DE BACKER. — This paper proposes a hypothetic reconstruction of the funeral rituals employed to bury the King during the Neo-Assyrian period…
 
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El Hadji Malick DEME. — In this essay, we propose to study the different varieties of bread contained in the texts of the pyramid of Unas…
 
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Francesca DIOSONO, Dario MONTI. — The paper focuses on the pre-Roman archaeological material culture evidence collected during fieldwork campaigns (2016-2018) carried out in the municipality of Cascia (Perugia, central Italy), a territory that ancient written sources attribute to the Sabines…
 
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Stéphane FAYE. — What is interesting about the Oresteia trilogy of Aeschylus is that the relationships between characters can offer many approaches that can lead to encouraging results…
 
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Christophe FLAMENT. — This study is devoted to the mining district of Laurion (Attika, Greece) during the Classical Period, and more specifically to the impacts the exploitation of those silver mines had on the Athenian history from the environmental, social, economical, and political points of view…
 
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Mattias KARLSSON. — This paper focuses on how Egypt and Kush are portrayed in Neo-Assyrian royal inscriptions. The philological analysis showed that Egypt and Kush are described partly as targets of coercion, in their being subjects and enemies…
 
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Pierre P. KOEMOTH †. — The author proposes an extended reading for the icon of the child-god crouching on the primeval lotus-flower or seating on the fruit of this “pink lotus” related to the heliotropic behaviour of the blue lotus-flower during the day but the selenotropic one of the white species during the night…
 
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Gérard LAMBIN. — Plotinus did not believe, he knew (or thought he knew). He knew that if “divine things” are limited to the three hypostases (the One, the Intellect, the Soul), the divine is no less everywhere, and that he is pure intellection…
 
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Valentina LIMINA. — The paper proposes a political interpretation of the reliefs depicting the sieges of Troy and Thebes on a group of eight funerary urns produced in Volterra in the first quarter of the 1st century BC…
 
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Marcel MEULDER. — The name of Bias, Melampus’ brother, is originally Luwian. It means “ the man to whom a wife is given”. He woos Pero, the daughter of the Pylian king Neleus, as a reward of Melampus’achievement…
 
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Herman MOORS. — In this article I will argue that Aphrodite – or Kypris, as she was called by Homer – is to be understood as the Greco-Cypriot interpretation of the Syrian goddess Atargatis, to whom the first part of this study is devoted. Contrary to common opinion, her name will be explained as a compound of Astarte and ‘Ate, the latter being the bearded and violent, even self-destructive, son of the former…
 
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Claudia POSANI. — This paper is aimed at a comparative study of the figurative use of the word(s) for “head” in Greek and Ancient Near Eastern texts…
 
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Federica Maria RISO. — The aim of the study is the investigation of funerary rituals  in a necropolis of Mutina (now Modena), a Roman colony of the Cisalpine founded in 183 BC along the Via Aemilia, important both for military-strategic and economic reasons…
 
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Thierry STASSER. — By Mid third Century BC, Kings of Syria inaugurated a policy of alliances with the Kingdoms of Pontos and Cappadocia, characterized by marriages of Seleucid princesses to Pontos rulers – with the exception of Antiochos III and his first cousin Laodice of Pontos…
 
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Jacques VANSCHOONWINKEL. — Women occupied an important place in the Aegean world of the Bronze Age, as evidenced by the clearly predominant female presence in the iconography of the period. This article focuses on the role of women in Aegean religions…
 
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The Founders of Rome as a Sequence of Mythic Figures
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The subject of Rome’s origins is one where the discourses of comparative mythology and archaeology can interact, but such interaction has never been easy. In approaching the subject here from the mythological point of view, I shall not have space to advance the dialogue explicitly, but hope the discussion will be useful to those who do pursue it.
 
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Le voyage involontaire de l’aurige Ratumena
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According to the legend, Ratumena was an Etruscan charioteer who won a race in the city of Veii but, after his victory, was dragged away by his horses, that brought the chariot to Rome, where they stopped in front of the Capitoline temple. This story seems to reflect the same pattern which appears in the Roman ritual of the equus October (horse of October) and the Indian asvamedha (sacrifice of an horse made by a king), i e the competition between different groups for the possession of an horse, whose scope is to provide one of these competitors with sovereignty.
 
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Ulysse et Télémaque, un parcours symbolique en termes de comparatisme
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Georges Dumézil has suggested that Ulysses’final struggle with the suitors is the equivalent of the destruction of Troy or the battle of Kurukshetra (Mahabharata). One can readily understand that two opposing forces encounter each other, each organised according to the hierarchy of the three Indo-European functions : 1 Odysseus against Antinous / 2 Telemachus against Eurymachus / 3 Eumaeus and Philoitius against Ctessipus, Polybus and Agelaus. Seen from this point of view, I consider the different adventures of Odysseus as stages in his downfall, the last being his experience with Calypso whose name is the symbol of nothingness, before his recovery (symbolised by the gifts of the Phaeacians) which is essential in view of the catastrophic state of the kingdom of Ithaca, weakened by too great a number of suitors. Symbolically, the Telemachia corresponds to the search for and the gradual reappearance of the god Lleu in Wales, otherwise known as Lugh in Ireland. Structurally speaking, the different parts of Ithaca are the same as the Indo-European provinces of Celtic Ireland.
 
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El mito de fundación de Lugdunum. Ensayo de lectura estructural
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Le mythe de fondation de Lugdunum, que nous lisons dans le traité du Ps-Plutarque, Sur les fleuves, a été étudié traditionnellement sans tenir compte de son rapport avec l’autre partie du texte sur le fleuve Arar ni avec l’ensemble de l’œuvre. Une étude de G. Charrière et A. Audin nous mène vers les possibilités qu’offre une lecture structurale du récit. Les deux parties du récit étant dominées par l’alose (un poisson) et des corbeaux, des espèces migratoires dans la région de Lyon où elles sont présentes pendant la canicule pour les premières et en hiver pour les seconds. Ceci, relié à d’autres traits anatomiques et éthologiques de ces animaux, permet de soutenir que le mythe s’inspire de certaines des caractéristiques remarquables du calendrier celtique (celui de Coligny a été trouvé à 100 km au nord de Lyon) comme éléments structurants le récit de fondation.
 
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Le dieu celtique Lugus, le soleil et l'organisation du territoire
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The aim of this study is to show the links between the Celtic god Lugus and landscape organization. We underline the important part of the light from sunrise – which has well known connexions with Lugus – in the process used by the Celts for their spatial orientation. By revealing the setting of a landmark, orientation constitutes a preliminary and essential step before the establishment of a space which will be intended to be inhabited by people. The analysis of Gaulish archaeological facts and Irish medieval tales perfectly highlights the relation of Mercury and Lug to strategic places which were used for the development of a human community: places of assembly, places where cities or provinces were founded, places on hilltop or located on a border, shrines, roads; moreover, some of them are frequently found in a same place, which demonstrates a real cohesion in the process of organizing landscape.
 
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The Passage "trans Tiberim" and the Debt Bondage in Early Rome
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En droit romain primitif, le débiteur était obligé à payer ses créances avant la fin de l’année en cours. La garantie de la dette se réalisait avec l’aide du serment aux dieux. Aux temps historiques, ces dieux étaient Jupiter et Saturne, apparentés aux dieux védiques Mitra et Varuṇa. En cas de non-paiement de la dette, le débiteur est considéré comme un violateur de serment, qui ne pouvait se trouver où se trouvait le dieu offensé par lui. Le débiteur devait quitter le territoire romain à la fin de l’année. S’il ne le faisait pas volontairement, il était vendu en Étrurie, où il perdait son statut civil et sa liberté. La procédure de condamnation des débiteurs insolvables de la loi des XII Tables montre que le chemin qui mène au Tibre était analogue au voyage qui mène vers l’autre monde, au règne de la mort.
 
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La figure du héros dans le monde anatolien antique
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In this contribution, the reader finds a short analysis of the Hittite-Luwian conception of the hastali- “the Hero”, an official title dedicated to the Hittite kings during the Hittite Empire.
 
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Culture and Nature, Road and Wilderness. The Ecology of Myth
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This paper looks at human attempts to understand and then to “order” the natural world, with special attention to “the road through the wood.”…
 
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Le Troiae lusus, le schéma du Labyrinthe et l’Octaétéride
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The diagram known as that “of the labyrinth” is not specific to the Cretan world nor to Knossos. Attested from the second millenium from Syria to the British isles, it seems that it might represent an octaeteris or period of eight years, corresponding to 99 months in the lunar calendar. The end of this cycle and the beginning of the following one gave rise to regeneration rituals, differing according to the region, whose souvenir survives notably in the legend of the Minotaur and in the Romans’ Troiae Lusus.
 
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Andrea Carandini, Romulus et les dema. Naissance, diffusion et ravages d’un produit ethnographique toxique
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The concept of dema is used in ethnography to designate a particular category of primordial beings in paleo-cultivator cultures. Certain Italian scholars have used it in their research on the origins of Rome, specifically when referring to Romulus. We might mention in particular A. Brelich, working in 1960, and, more recently, the archaeologist A. Carandini. The current paper retraces the history of the concept since its first appearance in 1922 up to the present day : how it has evolved over the decades, and how scholars have frequently applied it without sufficient rigour, generating between them a series of false hypotheses and propositions. In the interests of interdisciplinarity, it might be desirable to stray into the field of ethnography, but it is imperative to proceed with method. This requirement has not been respected in research done on the origins of Rome, an area in which the demas of ethnology have absolutely no role to play.
 
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Marginalité et souveraineté. Des chemins de traverse aux allées du pouvoir
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We will follow the Masters of paths. They are Pushan and Aryaman in India, Pan and Hermes in Ancient Greece; others are Scandinavian such as the god Ullr or Palnatoki, or anglo-saxon such as Robin Hood. Their tracks lead us from the rural or forest world to which they belong to the surroundings of the sovereign. They wander around him either to serve him and save his throne, or to betray him, replace him and even kill him. Sometimes, indo-european myth melts with History when for instance Antoine as Lupercal tries to crown Ceasar.
 
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L’usurpation de la souveraineté divine dans les mythologies scandinave et celte
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Scandinavian and Celtic myths propose close similar stories about two temporary losses of his royal power by the king of the gods, i.e. Odin, Math and Nuadha.
 
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L’exégèse théologique du Mahābhārata. Le système symbolique des amśāvatarana
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This article does not at all deal with the controverted ideological theory of the ‘three functions’ such as used by Stig Wikander and Georges Dumézil in their interpretation of the Indian epics, but examines the basis of what could be called their ‘theological exegesis’ of the Mahābhārata: the fact that the main heroes of the story are symbolically presented as the ‘partial incarnations’ of the gods, born on earth with a ‘part’ of themselves. Avoiding the unsolvable problems of some (Indo-European, Indo-Iranian or even Vedic) reconstructions proposed by Dumézil, this essay underlines the importance of taking into account the aṃśāvataraṇa list at first as it is given in the text, itself enlightened by a significant passage from its ‘supplement’ (viz. the Harivaṃśa), since it provides us with a specific pantheon existing at the time of the elaboration of the epics. In that respect, the ‘theological exegesis’ of Dumézil will probably remain his most important contribution to the understanding of the religious meaning of the Sanskrit epics in its oldest state.
 
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The Roman Regifugium. Myth and Ritual of the King's Journey Beyond the Boundary
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February 24 annually brings the archaic Roman ritual of the Regifugium, the ‘Flight of the King’…
 
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De l’influence des ‘Traités de vassalité’ hittites sur la composition du livre du deutéronome. Évaluation d’une théorie classique en exégèse biblique
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The hypothesis of an influence of the hittite vassal treaties on the biblical text has been proposed by Mendenhall in 1954, whoses studies dealt with the link between hittite texts and the Covenant narratives and laws in Ex 19-24, and later by Weinfeld who tried to demonstrate the influence of both akkadian legal texts and hittites treaties on the structure of the book of Deuteronomy. The recent research about the composition of Deuteronomy lead to the conclusion that the narrative and legal texts of this book belong to different stages of its composition, and so call in question Weinfeld’s hypothesis. Nevertheless, there could have been an indirect cultural influence of the hittite treaties on the biblical texts, and of the assyrian litterature as well, as the litterary analysis can find similarities in the concepts and in the vocabulary.
 
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Vision de l’autre à travers le voile du passé, vision de l’ailleurs ; entre oubli et mémoire éclatée, entre Histoire et mythologie : le cas hourro-hittite confronté aux légendes des Éthiopiens-kushites
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Few documents depict the various elements shaping the Hittite empire of the second millenium. The example of the Hurrians, who were the Hittites' foe at first before turning into their civilization masters, is relevant in this regard. Their symbiosis with the Hittites, which justifies the «Hurro-Hittites » designation, makes it difficult to uncover any alterity between them. This is all the more true from the perspective of the classical and biblical testimony. If the Hittite and Mitannian empires seem to have faded into oblivion, scholars of the modern era have raised some misquoted historical accounts. Thereby, it is arguable that other peoples from the Antiquity shared connections not yet identified, or not formally differentiated. In this respect, a large amount of evidence led my research towards Greek and Ethiopian texts, and the Kouchites of the bible, as anachronous as this may seem.
 
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Le grand mariage hittite de Ramsès II et son empreinte dans la mémoire égyptienne
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C. CANNUYER, « Le grand “mariage hittite” de Ramsès II et son empreinte dans la mémoire égyptienne », dans I. KLOCK-FONTANILLE, S. BIETTLOT et K. MESHOUB (éd.), Identité et altérité culturelles : le cas des Hittites dans le Proche-Orient ancien. Actes de colloque, Université de Limoges 27-28 novembre 2008, Brussels, 2010, p. 87-104.
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Amour, musique et poésie au gré des relations égypto-hittites. Réflexions autour d’une statuette de harpiste ‘hittite’ de Médinet el-Gourob/Miour
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The Hittite-Egyptian relationships are not being tackled here based on the events that have marked international history. We will be looking at a little statue, which embodies a humble protagonist of the relations established between Egypt and Anatolia. This is the statue of a musician labelled as "Hittite", which was discovered in Médinet en-Gourob, the royal residence and harem where Asian spouses of the pharaoh are thought to have resided.
 
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L’apport hourrite dans l’élaboration de la culture hittite du XIIIe siècle av. J.-C.
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In the first part of this contribution the reader finds an historical aspect relating to the great moments of the Hurrian civilization . An information is added about the progress of the decipherment of the Hurrian language. The second part deals with the influence of the Hurrians during the 13st century B.C. especially over the Hittite language and the official religion of the Hittite Empire.
 
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